CSJ Archive > Contents > Conference Proceedings: 2008 (30th Annual Conference; Washington, DC)

CogSci 2008

30th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society

July 23-26, 2008    Washington, DC, USA


Problem Representations in Multitasking: An Additional Cognitive Bottleneck

Jelmer P. Borst   (jpborst@ai.rug.nl)
University of Groningen

Niels A. Taatgen   (taatgen@cmu.edu)
Carnegie Mellon University

Hedderik Van Rijn   (d.h.van.rijn@rug.nl)
University of Groningen

Salvucci and Taatgen (2008, Psychological Review) presented evidence for two cognitive bottlenecks in multitasking: central processing and declarative memory. We present evidence for a third bottleneck: the problem representation. Two experiments were carried out in which the participants had to perform two tasks concurrently. Both tasks were presented in two versions: one that required maintaining a problem representation and one that did not. Significant interference was observed when two problem representations were required, showing that people can only have one active problem representation, even though they can switch between them at a cost in time. To account for the observed behavior, computational cognitive models were developed using ACT-R (Anderson, 2007) and the Threaded Cognition theory of Salvucci and Taatgen (2008). The models showed that in order to account for the interference, the two existing bottlenecks were insufficient, but adding a third problem-representation bottleneck could account for the data.


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Incongruity of Premise Content and Type Affects Reasoning Performance

Sharon Lee Armstrong   (armstrong@lasalle.edu)
La Salle University

In previous research neutral content produced superior judgments about validity of conditional syllogisms over content that is incongruent with experience. Further, the congruity of the conditional first premise appears to play a more important role in correct performance than the congruity of the other premise or conclusion. This study varied the content of the conditional first premise by changing the type of congruity relationship it expresses (neutral relations, physical laws, behavioral laws, social rules, moral principles). Further, conditional premises were constructed to be congruent with experience (disposing the subject to a proper judgment of validity) or incongruent (disposing the subject to an improper judgment). Examples: If you help someone, you should be thanked. Vs. If you help someone, you should be scolded. Results revealed an interaction between type of rule and type of congruency such that the incongruency of the moral rules was especially disruptive to reasoning accuracy.


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Understanding Complex Problem Solving: The Case of Ethics Decision-Making

Russell W. Robbins   (robbins.russ@gmail.com)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

William A. Wallace   (wallaw@rpi.edu)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

To create a virtual experimentation environment where scientists can experiment with software agents that are grounded in the analysis of actual complex solving cognition and behavior, we studied the processes 106 participants used as they resolved an ethical dilemma. The ethical dilemma was based on a real situation where government health agency administrators balanced individuals' rights to privacy and self-determination, a government's duty to protect the elderly and addicts, and pharmacists' right to earn and self-regulate. The participants considered whether to and if so, how to implement a distributed database for pharmacy records. Research methods used included verbal protocol analysis, behavior coding, process tracing, computational geometry, and statistical string analysis. Relationships between proposed cognitions, actual behaviors, and strings of choices are related to moral judgment ability, values, ideologies, and other variables. The relationships of thirty-two high-level purported cognitive processes of individuals are analyzed.


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Questioning Chase and Simon's (1973) Perception in Chess?

Alexandre Linhares   (linhares@clubofrome.org.br)
Getulio Vargas Foundation, the Club of Rome

The game of chess is, I believe, a game of abstractions: pressures; force; open files and ranks; time; tightness of defense; old strategies rapidly adapted to new situations. These ideas do not arise on current computational models, which apply brute force by rote-memorization. In this paper I assess the computational models of CHREST and CHUMP, and argue that chess chunks must contain semantic information. This argument leads to a rather bold claim, as I propose that key conclusions of Chase and Simon's (1973) influential study stemmed from a non-sequitur.


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Distributed Cooknition: Problem Solving in Professional Kitchens

Aras Bilgen   (abilgen@cc.gatech.edu)
Georgia Institute of Technology

Nancy J. Nersessian   (nancyn@cc.gatech.edu)
Georgia Institute of Technology

Wendy C. Newstetter   (wendy@bme.cc.gatech.edu)
Georgia Institute of Technology

Distributed cognition offers a powerful framework for exploring the roles of external artifacts and social structures in problem solving. Through our study of professional kitchens, we show that distributed cognition can be used to understand problem solving in creative endeavors; in this case, professional cooking. We examine how individuals and small groups structure settings and interactions to use their environment in creative ways to find solutions to their problems. We discovered that positional information ecologies are central to creative problem solving in professional kitchens, and that the social structure around professional cooking tasks is essential to sustaining the kitchens' capacity to handle problems smoothly. Our study shows how distributed cognition can facilitate understanding of the cognitive properties of work settings where small, creative solutions are produced asynchronously and later assembled into bigger goals.


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The Relationship Between Self-Reflection and Performance on Cognitive Tasks

Xu Xu   (xuxu@psu.edu)
Penn State

The study explored the relationship between self-reflection and performance on various cognitive tasks. The Self-Reflection and Insight Scale contained three subscales: engagement in reflection, need for reflection, and insight (Grant, Franklin, & Langford, 2002). Need for reflection was found negatively correlated with the level of performance on a vocabulary test and intrusive errors in a memory recognition task. None of the subscale scores were found to be associated with working memory scores, suggesting that need for self-reflection account for the variation in cognitive performance independent of working memory capacity. Self-reflection had been mainly studied in personality and counseling research. The findings suggest that it may to some extent account for individual differences in cognitive functioning.


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Meaning Negotiation and Situational Interest

Marco Cruciani   (cruciani@disi.unitn.it)
University of Trento

I attempt to answer the question: how do agents involved in a linguistic controversy determine the intended meaning of a sentence? The thesis: the determination of meaning is driven by agents interests. The first hypothesis: an agent s situational interest drives the choice of meaning for ambiguous sentences. It is argued: semantics, the dictionary, context and domain knowledge are not sufficient to determine a unique meaning. Hence, an agent legitimately chooses a meaning given a set of acceptable meanings. This proposal impacts on meaning under-determination. The second hypothesis: in meaning negotiation, agents negotiate their own interests, and not directly the meaning. Meaning is then fixed on the agreement arising from the interests negotiation. I illustrate two linguistic controversies provoked by the same clause. These controversies were resolved by determining two opposite meanings. The meanings were determined by different interests negotiations. This proposal impacts on determining the intended meaning in meaning negotiation.


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Poster Session III -- Information Processing in Problem Solving and Language Tasks

(Saturday, July 26, 2008, 5:00-7:00 PM, Exhibit Hall)


The Production of Free Standing and Bound Morphemes in Language Production: A Task Comparison

Niels Janssen   (niels.janssen@univ-provence.fr)
Cnrs & Université De Provence

Niels Schiller   (n.o.schiller@let.leidenuniv.nl)
Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition (Libc), Leiden University

F.-Xavier Alario   (Francois-Xavier.Alario@univ-provence.fr)
Cnrs & Université De Provence

This study addressed the question whether the production of free standing morphemes depends on the same mechanism than the production of bound morphemes (e.g., Lemhöfer, Schriefers, & Jescheniak, 2006). All Dutch participants were tested in the picture-word interference (PWI; Lupker, 1979) and simple picture-naming (SPN; Janssen & Caramazza, 2003) tasks. Production of free standing and bound morphemes was assessed via gender marked determiner+adjective+noun (e.g., /de/ grote auto [the big car]), and adjective+noun (e.g., grot/e/ auto [big car]) utterances, respectively. Each task revealed comparable results: Relative to a bare noun baseline, the PWI task revealed a gender congruency effect for free standing, but not for bound morpheme production, and likewise, the SPN task yielded a gender by number interaction for free standing, but not for bound morpheme production. The results favor the hypothesis that different mechanisms underlie the production of free standing and bound morphemes (e.g., Schiller & Costa, 2006).


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Does Verbalization Always Impair Insight Problem Solving?

Sachiko Kiyokawa   (kiyo@isc.chubu.ac.jp)
Chubu University

Mariko Kirihara   (kiriringopart2@yahoo.co.jp)
University of Tokyo

This study investigated the effects of two kinds of verbalization on insight problem solving. 184 undergraduates were randomly assigned to either one of three conditions: descriptive verbalization, failure-focused verbalization, and control. In all the conditions, participants were interrupted after 2 min of working on each problem. The interruption lasted 1.5 min. During the time, participants in the descriptive verbalization condition were asked to write out how to solve the problem while those in the failure-focused verbalization condition what they thought inappropriate for solving the problem. Seven insight problems were used from Schooler et al. (1993). Fisher's exact test revealed that the solution rate in descriptive verbalization was significantly lower than those in the other conditions with regard only to "water lily" problem. These results implied that verbalization does not always impair insight problem solving and that we should pay attention to both type of verbalization and problem.


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The Difference in Brain Activity by the Difference in Reading Speed: A Psychological Experiment and NIRS Measurements

Kazuhiro Ueda   (ueda@gregorio.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp)
The University of Tokyo

Naoya Kato   (naoyakato@gmail.com)
The University of Tokyo

Haruaki Fukuda   (ZTE03171@nifty.com)
The University of Tokyo

Toyofumi Sasaki   (sasaki@sokudoku.co.jp)
Nbs Japan Society of Speed Reading Education

Masaharu Kato   (pieko@ibcd.twmu.ac.jp)
Tokyo Women'S Medical University

We aim to clarify a cognitive function that raises the difference in reading speed between normal readers (NRs) and speed readers (SRs). The NRs processing speed of Kana characters and that of Kanji characters were measured independently. Because Kana is phoneme-based, processing time of Kana characters increased linearly as the number of their phonemes increased; on the other hand, processing time of Kanji characters was independent of the number of their phonemes and shorter than that of Kana characters. Moreover, a NIRS measurement revealed that the NRs brain regions activated in reading Kanji characters were different from those in reading Kana characters. Most of the regions activated when NRs read Kana characters were also found inactivated when SRs read both Kana and Kanji characters. These results suggest that the routes used for processing differ between Kana and Kanji characters, which makes the difference in reading speed between NRs and SRs.


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Entropy and Set Size in Free Association

Lance W. Hahn   (Lance.Hahn@wku.edu)
Western Kentucky University

The number of responses (set size or out-degree) in a free association task has been recognized both theoretically (Steyvers and Tenenbaum, 2003) and empirically (Nelson, McEvoy and Dennis, 2000) as an important semantic attribute of a word. While this metric captures an important property, it is insensitive to changes in response distribution and overly sensitive to the addition of low-frequency responses. Information entropy avoids these weaknesses while capturing critical aspects of both the number and the distribution of association strengths. This paper compares the set size and entropy distributions for the free association norms database (Nelson, McEvoy and Schreiber, 1998) and for new five-response free association data gathered with cue words varying in single-response entropy. In the five-response task low-entropy words have increased entropy while high-entropy words have reduced entropy. Entropy also captures the distinction between weak and strong primaries made by Nelson, et al. (2000).


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Effects of Constituency on the Processing of Lexicalized and Novel Compound Words

Robert Fiorentino   (fiorentino@ku.edu)
University of Kansas

Ella M. Fund-Reznicek   (efundrez@ku.edu)
University of Kansas

The nature and time course of lexical access, and in particular the role of morphological constituents in complex word recognition, remains controversial (e.g., Hay & Baayen, 2005). The current study provides new evidence for morphological-level processing in both lexicalized and novel compounds. Lexicalized compounds (e.g., teacup) matched on whole-word properties to monomorphemic words (e.g., throttle), but possessing short, high-frequency morphemes (tea/cup), show significantly faster response times (RT) than matched monomorphemic words, while novel compounds (e.g., tombnote) in the same experiment show significant RT delays compared with carefully-matched non-morphemic nonwords (e.g., mulgrame), lexicalized compounds (whole-word/morpheme properties matched), and monomorphemic words. These findings converge with previous results showing an RT advantage for lexicalized compounds vs. monomorphemic words (Fiorentino & Poeppel, 2007), and establish that these constituency effects are significant but opposite among lexicalized and novel compounds in the same experiment, as predicted under word recognition models including morphological-level decomposition and composition processes.


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Evidence for the Early Detection of Voicing Mismatch in Obstruent Consonant Clusters

So-One Hwang   (soone@umd.edu)
University of Maryland, Department of Linguistics

Philip J. Monahan   (pmonahan@umd.edu)
University of Maryland, Department of Linguistics

William J. Idsardi   (idsardi@umd.edu)
University of Maryland, Department of Linguistics

It is a point of contention to what extent putatively abstract phonological knowledge influences early perceptual experience. This study compares behavioral and neural responses to consonant clusters that agree in voicing (e.g., [uts]) with those that disagree, (e.g., [utz]), an unattested cluster in English. The abstract knowledge that within-syllable consonant clusters must agree in voicing is taken to be the basis for making predictions during auditory processing. Violations should cause processing difficulty, as indexed by slower reaction times and response latencies in electrophysiological components. Materials were created by cross splicing the final fricative ([s]/[z]) with a vowel-stop sequence ([ut]/[ud]). Behaviorally (n=8), we find slower reaction times (p<0.0003) and lower accuracy (p<0.0002) to voicing mismatch clusters in a phoneme identification task. Preliminary MEG data indicates that this constraint on voicing co-occurrence is employed within the first 100ms of perception, suggesting that phonological knowledge shapes our early auditory experience.


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Brain Interactions of Language and Attention: Neurocomputational and Neurophysiological Studies

Max Garagnani   (Max.Garagnani@mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk)
Medical Research Council, Cognition & Brain Sciences Unit

Yury Shtyrov   (Yury.Shtyrov@mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk)
Medical Research Council,  Cognition & Brain Sciences Unit

Thomas Wennekers   (thomas.wennekers@plymouth.ac.uk)
Univ. of Plymouth, Center for Theoretical and Computational Neuroscience

Friedemann Pulvermüller   (Friedemann.Pulvermuller@mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk)
Medical Research Council, Cognition & Brain Sciences Unit

The brain responses to the same speech sounds differ if the stimuli are presented in different task contexts: when subjects are not paying attention to the auditory input, their early mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response is greater for words than for matched meaningless pseudowords, whereas the opposite pattern (N400) emerges in tasks where subjects attend to the stimuli. We implemented a neuroanatomically-grounded neural-network model of the left-perisylvian cortex that uses Hebbian learning to simulate word-acquisition processes. The variation of a single parameter explained the divergence between MMN and N400 results, providing the first unifying account, at cortical-circuit level, of these neurophysiological data. Furthermore, we recorded the brain responses to words/pseudowords when subjects were asked to attend to or ignore the same spoken input. The results showed consistent larger responses to pseudowords than to words under high attentional demand, and the opposite trend (wordsepseudowords) under non-attend conditions, confirming the model's predictions.


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How Do Bilingual Speakers Deal With Phonological Similarity Across Languages? an Investigation of Syllable Production Processes: Syllable Production in Bilingual Speakers

F.-Xavier Alario   (Francois-Xavier.Alario@univ-provence.fr)
Cnrs & Aix-Marseille Université

Violaine Michel   (youdonotneedthis@email.com)
Service De Neurorééducation, Hôpitaux Universitaires De Genève

Carla Castellano   (youdonotneedthis@email.com)
Service De Neurorééducation, Hôpitaux Universitaires De Genève

Jeremy Goslin   (youdonotneedthis@email.com)
Centre for Thinking and Language, University of Plymouth

Marina Laganaro   (youdonotneedthis@email.com)
Service De Neurorééducation, Hôpitaux Universitaires De Genève

A critical question for understanding phonological processing in bilingual speakers concerns the phonological units that are shared across languages. Are these units represented by a common or by a separate representation in the two languages? This question was investigated by focusing on how bilinguals produce syllables that exist in one or both of the languages they speak. French-Spanish bilinguals were asked to read bisyllabic nonwords composed of (phonological) syllables spanning a large and uncorrelated range of frequency in their two languages. Syllable frequency has been shown to provide a reliable handle on syllabic representations (e.g. Wheeldon & Levelt, Cognition, 1995; Laganaro & Alario, JML, 2006). An extensive comparative analysis of the naming latencies was conducted using linear mixed-effects models instantiating various implementations of the common/independent representation hypothesis, as well as potential confounds. The models argue in favor of a common syllabic representation. Variations of this pattern with language proficiency are also discussed.


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Phonological and Orthographic Consistency Effects in Cortex for Normal and Impaired Readers

Donald J. Bolger   (d-bolger@northwestern.edu)
Northwestern University

Jennifer Minas   (j-minas@northwestern.edu)
Northwestern University

Fan Cao   (f-cao@northwestern.edu)
Northwestern University

Douglas D. Burman   (d-burman@northwestern.edu)
Northwestern University

James R. Booth   (j-booth@northwestern.edu)
Northwestern University

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined neural correlates of phonological inconsistency (spelling to sound) and orthographic inconsistency (sound to spelling) in 9- to 15-year-old normal and impaired readers during a rhyming task with visual words. Phonological and orthographic inconsistency were associated with greater activation for normal readers in several regions including anterior cingulate, left prefrontal and left fusiform cortex. Impaired readers activated only anterior cingulate cortex in response to greater inconsistency. Group comparisons revealed that normal compared to impaired readers exhibited a larger response in the entire network for phonological inconsistency whereas orthographic inconsistency differences were limited. Lastly, brain-behavior correlations revealed a difference between normal and impaired readers in the relationship of skill measures (i.e. phonological awareness and decoding) to cortical consistency effects. Normal readers exhibited increasing activation in left prefrontal and fusiform cortex to inconsistency as skill increased, whereas impaired readers showed the opposite relationship.


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Dissimilarity and Blending:Bases for the Concept -Synthesizing Process- Comparison Between the Linguistic Interpretation and Design Processes

Yukari Nagai   (ynagai@jaist.ac.jp)
Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology

Futoshi Mukai   (078t366t@stu.kobe-u.ac.jp)
Kobe University

Toshiharu Taura   (taura@kobe-u.ac.jp)
Kobe University

This study analyzed the characteristics of the design process compared to the interpretation process. We analyzed the characteristics from the viewpoint of a thinking pattern (analogy, blending, and thematic relation) and recognition types (commonality and alignable and nonalignable differences). This study addressed the process of synthesizing two concepts, the simplest and most essential process in formulating a new concept from the existing ones. Regarding the characteristics of design creativity, we assume that the concept-synthesizing process represents the basis of accessing problems; recognition types play a crucial role here. In our experiment, the subjects were required to interpret a novel noun-noun combination phrase, create a design concept from the same combination, and list the similarities and dissimilarities between the two nouns. The results indicated that blending and nonalignable differences characterize the design thought process. Nonalignable differences do not stem from inherent personality traits but occur during the design and interpretation processes.


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Poster Session III -- Language Processing

(Saturday, July 26, 2008, 5:00-7:00 PM, Exhibit Hall)


A Connectionist Account of Grammatical Category Deficits in Aphasia

Christine E. Watson   (cewatson@andrew.cmu.edu)
Carnegie Mellon University

David C. Plaut   (plaut@cmu.edu)
Carnegie Mellon University

The existence of noun- or verb-specific impairments in aphasia has often been used as evidence that grammatical category is an organizing principle of lexical knowledge. However, given the confound between meaning and grammatical category (e.g. all objects are nouns), apparent grammatical category deficits may result from damage to semantic information. We show that a distributed connectionist model of semantics can produce grammatical category-specific naming impairments even in the absence of any explicit representation of grammatical categories due to a topographic bias favoring short connections and the differential participation of visual- or action-related knowledge in representing the meanings of nouns and verbs. These results suggest that the observed deficits in aphasic naming do not require grammatical category to be an organizing principle of language representations. Rather, dissociations between nouns and verbs after damage are best understood as reflecting the learned organization of semantic knowledge in the brain.


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What Does a Shopper Expect to Save? The Role of Event Knowledge in Verb Interpretation

David Race   (drace@bcs.rochester.edu)
University of Rochester

Natalie Klein   (nklein@bcs.rochester.edu)
University of Rochester

Mary Hare   (hare@crl.ucsd.edu)
Bowling Green State University

Michael Tanenhaus   (mtan@bcs.rochester.edu)
University of Rochester

Many verbs denote different types of events: Save can mean 'bring to safety' or 'spend less.' The agent NP influences interpretation: 'lifeguard' suggests the first sense, and 'shopper' the second. Furthermore, good patients of 'bring to safety' are faster after 'lifeguard saved' compared to those of 'spend less' (Bicknell et al., 2008). Such expectations about the verb's thematic role fillers are arguably based on the event the verb refers to. To test this, we created sentences for 20 sense-ambiguous verbs, with agents biasing towards different senses, but continuing identically (the lifeguard/shopper saved a woman..). These sentences followed short discourse contexts that were either consistent or inconsistent with the sense used in the continuation. In a self-paced reading study, RTs at the patient were faster following consistent contexts, regardless of the agent. This is as predicted if interpretation depends on thematic fit of the participants to the event being described.


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Individuals Vary in the Conception of Input-Output Feature of Mental Processes

Xu Xu   (xuxu@psu.edu)
Penn State

Information-input versus information-output has been shown a primary feature of mental processes. This study examined individual differences in conceptualization of information-input versus information-output. Twelve mental verbs were identified in a preliminary study as either input verbs (e.g., examine) or output verbs (e.g., infer). Thirty-four participants described three aspects for each of the 12 verbs, which included initial mental state, the process, and final mental state, and filled out the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory. The descriptions of each aspect were contrasted using Latent Semantic Analysis between input verbs and output verbs. Different contrast scores indicated different levels of distinctions between the two types of processes. Participants contrast scores and self-confidence scores were found moderately correlated with the MAI declarative knowledge, suggesting that the salience of input-output feature vary across individuals, which is associated with the level of self-assessment about one s metacognitive knowledge.


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Dissociation Patterns Between Schizophrenic Patients and Their Controls in Theory of Mind and Language Comprehension Tasks

José M. Gavilán   (jm.gavilan@urv.cat)
Universitat Rovira I Virgili

José E. García-Albea   (jegarcia.albea@urv.cat)
Universitat Rovira I Virgili

A total of 24 Spanish-speaking inpatients and 24 healthy controls paralleled in age, sex, education and language dominance were assessed using 3 Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks (all consisted of both ToM-critical and -neutral items) and 3 Figurative Language Comprehension (FLC) tasks (metaphors, ironies, and proverbs) plus a standard paragraph comprehension task. Results evidence not only a lower performance of patients in ToM and FLC tasks, but also, and more interestingly, a clear difference between the performance patterns across groups in both kinds of tasks. Whereas controls don't manifest a lower performance in ToM-critical items than in neutral ones and, furthermore, demonstrate superior performance in the three FLC tasks compared to the standard, patients evidence the opposite pattern: poorer performance in ToM-critical items (vs. neutral) and in FLC tasks (vs. standard). These results are discussed in the context of recent findings in the relationship between ToM and FLC in schizophrenia.


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Word Order in Japanese Sentences Biases the Interpretation of Ambiguity

Keiko Nakamoto   (nakamoto@koshigaya.bunkyo.ac.jp)
Bunkyo University

This study reports an experiment that examined the effect of word order on the interpretation of a semantically ambiguous Japanese sentence. For the experiment, 12 pairs of ambiguous Japanese sentences were prepared for the targets. Each pair was constructed such that they contained the same main verb and same three noun phrases with the case markers ?ga, -ni, and ?o. In each pair, one sentence was configured in the order ?X-ga Y-o Z-ni V? (F1), while the other was configured in the order ?X-ga Z-ni- Y-o V? (F2). In the experiment, from two phrases, 64 native Japanese speakers were asked to select the one that was more similar to their interpretation of the target sentence. The results showed that the participants had a greater tendency to interpret the sentence as ?X gives Y to Z? when it was formed in the order F2 than when it was formed in the order F1. This suggests that the word order in a Japanese sentence provides some information on semantic interpretation.


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Verb-Generation Priming is Based on Verb-Concept Selection and Verb Production

Eva M. De La Riva Lopez   (edelariva@miners.utep.edu)
University of Texas at El Paso

Wendy S. Francis   (wfrancis@utep.edu)
University of Texas at El Paso

Julisa Caraballo   (julisac@miners.utep.edu)
University of Texas at El Paso

In a verb-generation task, participants are shown a noun (e.g., airplane) and are instructed to generate a verb (e.g., fly) that is associated with the stimulus. Three component processes of verb generation were identified as potential bases of repetition priming: noun comprehension, verb-concept selection, and verb production. In an experiment with 72 Spanish-English bilinguals, four encoding tasks were used to selectively prime these three processes in a later English-language verb generation test. An English-Spanish noun-translation task was used to prime noun comprehension. A Spanish verb-generation task was used to prime verb-concept selection. A Spanish-English verb-translation task was used to prime verb production. Finally, an identical English verb-generation task was used to measure the effect of repeated all three processes. All conditions yielded priming except for the noun-translation condition, which indicates that both verb-concept selection and verb production contribute to facilitation in repeated verb generation.


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Schematisation of the Lexical Meanings: A Case Study

Mbame Nazaire   (mbame@lrl.univ-bpclermont.fr)
L.R.L, Ubp, Clermont 2


R. Thom (1972, 1980) defined Morphogenesis as generation of forms. We are going to see how this concept works in lexical semantics, especially in the generation of what Cadiot and Visetti (2001) called semantic forms ( or forms of meaning) of lexical items. For illustration, we are going to take the example of the notion chair, and will see how semantic forms relating to are generated through a dynamic categorization process consisting in conceptual particularisation, differentiation, transposition. After that we will draw up the corresponding schematic representation, in which the meanings of the notion chair derive one from another according to their natural causality. By Semantic morphogenesis of a lexical item we thus intend, the generation process of its different meanings listed by dictionaries. The general goal of this research is to constitute a Morphodynamic Ontology of a language like English.


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Associative Interference Links Memory for Pairs with Memory for Serial Lists

Mayank Rehani   (rehani@ualberta.ca)
University of Alberta

Jeremy B. Caplan   (jcaplan@ualberta.ca)
University of Alberta

Memory models assume paired associates learning (PAL) and serial list learning (SL) either rely on common cognitive processes or represent distinct modes of learning that must be modeled separately. We asked whether a robust property of PAL - a high correlation between forward and backward probes pairs, suggesting that a single, bidirectional association is learned rather than separate, directional associations~~(Kahana, 2002) - sets pairs apart from lists. Incorporating substantial associative interference in PAL (overlapping word pairs: A-B, B-C,etc.), we asked whether interference disrupts the apparent holistic character of pairs as has been shown for lists (Caplan, 2005). Our results suggest that, far from being distinct forms of learning, interference has a comparable effect on PAL as it has on SL. Model fits to the data suggest how models either relying on item-item heteroassociations or heteroassociations between items and position codes or context vectors may accommodate these findings.


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Discourse Relations in Context: Structural Effects in the Comprehension of Texts

Eyal Sagi   (ermon@northwestern.edu)
Northwestern University

Many theories of discourse structure rely on the idea that the segments comprising the discourse are linked through inferred relations such as causality and temporal contiguity. These theories suggest that these relations form a hierarchy that binds the discourse into a unified whole. Two experiments examine some of the implications of these hierarchical structures on the perceived coherence of texts. In an experiment, participants read narrative or procedural texts depicting a series of actions wherein one action was elaborated upon. Participants found narratives in which the elaboration occurred late in the text easier to read than those in which the elaboration occurred early. In contrast, no such effect was found for procedural texts. This result supports the hypothesis that the process of reading is guided by expectations as to the structure of the text and that these expectations are partly based on the perceived genre of the text.


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Position of Complements and Complementation Frames within Lexical Representation of Verbs

Stanislava Antonijevic   (stanislava.antonijevic@nuigalway.ie)
School of Health Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway & Speech and Language Therapy Department, University of Limer

To examine the position of the number of complements and the number of complementation frames within the lexical representation of verbs, 50 German verbs were selected semi-randomly from the CELEX database and presented in a lexical decision task. Reaction times (RTs) were contrasted in stepwise regression analysis with the number of complements and the number of complementation frames. This analysis indicated the number of complementation frames as of principal influence on verb processing. However, a negative nonlinear relationship between RTs and the number of complementation frames suggests that complementation frames are not directly represented in the verbs lexical representation, but are organized into the verb paradigm. The number of complementation frames was the second significant predictor suggesting that single complements are also relevant for verb processing.


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How Different are Familiar Metaphors from Unfamiliar Ones?

Tomohiro Taira   (sakusha@syd.odn.ne.jp)
Kyoto University

Takashi Kusumi   (kusumi@mbox.kudpc.kyoto-u.ac.jp)
Kyoto University

The purpose of this study is to examine the structure of metaphor comprehension in individuals? comprehension. Our previous studies (Taira, Nakamoto, & Kusumi, 2007) showed that the structure of familiar metaphors is clearly different from that of unfamiliar metaphors. While individuals understand familiar metaphors in terms of many interpretations, unfamiliar metaphors are understood in terms of fewer interpretations, and different patterns of interpretations are observed among individuals. However, these results were obtained only from offline descriptive data, and whether more or less interpretations are produced during metaphor comprehension is still unknown. This study focused on investigating metaphor comprehension, based on online data, using a text rereading paradigm. The results revealed the advantage of familiar metaphors: Familiar metaphors enhanced the reading time for all sentences that were related to the metaphors (metaphor-related sentences), while unfamiliar metaphors enhanced the reading time for only the sentences that were the most closely related to the metaphors (most metaphor-related sentences).


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Poster Session III -- Spatial Cognition and Spatial Language Processing

(Saturday, July 26, 2008, 5:00-7:00 PM, Exhibit Hall)


Temporal Concepts and Frames of Reference: Thinking about Time Between Language and Space

Alexander Kranjec   (akranjec@mail.med.upenn.edu)
University of Pennsylvania

Laraine Mcdonough   (larainem@brooklyn.cuny.edu)
Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York

Is the meaning of an abstract concept primarily grounded in the relations among associated lexical items or to its connection to the outside world? We explored this question experimentally by hiding" lexical items related to two distinct temporal concepts (past/future and earlier/later) in different deictically oriented spatial locations while having participants "guess" an item's whereabouts. We fabricated an intentionally opaque experimental situation where the transparency of the task could be manipulated in principled ways: the spatial locations of the boxes and/or the semantic relations between lexical items were made more or less salient relative to the structure of a particular temporal concept. In three experiments\\ systematic manipulations influenced both response accuracy and participants' explicit understanding of the implicit spatiotemporal relations built into the task. The overall pattern of results suggests how distinct implicit and explicit processes can point to the same abstract conceptual representation."


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The Cognitive Plausibility of the Use of Cognitive Maps and the Mental Simulation of Others

William G. Kennedy   (bill.kennedy@nrl.navy.mil)
Naval Research Laboratory

The cognitive plausibility of cognitive maps and the mental simulation of others is not established. The plausibility of cognitive maps in humans has been the subject of debate since the concept was introduced 60 years ago. The prevalent view seems to be that because it takes people time and effort to build a cognitive map, i.e., it is not an automatic process, it is a cognitive process. Are there other characteristics of cognitive maps in humans that support cognitively plausibility? Similarly, the cognitive plausibility of simulating the cognitive process of other animated objects is questionable. There is evidence that children predict the actions of others as they develop the capability to perform that action themselves based on their own capabilities. What else can support the claim of cognitive plausibility of the mental simulation of others? This poster explores both issues and proposes a basis for determining cognitive plausibility.


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Good Times, Bad Times: Valence Influences the Adoption of Spatio-Temporal Metaphors

Christopher H. Ramey   (christopher.ramey@mac.com)
Florida Southern College

Evangelia G. Chrysikou   (evangelg@psych.upenn.edu)
University of Pennsylvania

Christopher H Ramey   (christopher.ramey@mac.com)

Earlier research has demonstrated that people represent the abstract concept of time by utilizing metaphoric mappings from the concrete domain of space. Previous accounts have addressed how real and imagined spatial movement can prime an answer to an ambiguous temporal question, leading to an earlier or later temporal perspective (i.e., a time-moving or ego-moving metaphor, respectively). However, research on spatio-temporal metaphors has not yet addressed the importance of how a person regards an event to be considered, that is, whether the perceived valence of a temporal event in a disambiguation paradigm can modulate the effects of spatial primes. The present paper provides evidence that motion primes interact with one s personal regard for a future event in ways that may influence and moderate the adoption of a particular time-moving or ego-moving spatio-temporal metaphor. We discuss the implications of these findings for a more dynamic person-centered perspective of temporal reasoning.


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Role of Imagistic Simulation in Creative Scientific Thought Experiments

John J. Clement   (clement@srri.umass.edu)
U. of Massachusetts

Interest in thought experiments (TE's) derives from the paradox: "How can findings that carry conviction result from a new experiment conducted entirely within the head?" Data from think-aloud protocols of 11 scientifically trained experts, including imagery reports and gestures, indicated that imagistic simulations occurred during TE's, and that convictions from these TE's have their origins in several sources, including the ?extended application? of a perceptual motor schema, implicit prior knowledge, and spatial reasoning or symmetry operations. These sources suggest what it means for TE's to be grounded in embodied processes. These analyses also yielded process models for how imagistic simulation is used within more complex reasoning modes such as compound simulation using multiple schemas, analogy, and model construction, as part of a larger model of scientific investigation processes (Clement, 2008). Clement, J., (2008). Creative model construction in scientists and students: The role of imagery, analogy, and mental simulation. Dordrecht: Springer. 


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Integrating Semantic and Visual Aspects of Online Information Search

Hansjoerg Neth   (nethh@rpi.edu)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Evan W. Patton   (pattoe@rpi.edu)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Steven Banas   (banass@rpi.edu)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Michael J. Schoelles   (schoem@rpi.edu)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Wayne D. Gray   (grayw@rpi.edu)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

How do the semantic and visual properties of web pages interact in online information search? Our novel methodology merges theoretical insights from the information foraging literature (Fu & Pirolli, 2007; Pirolli, 2007) with technological advances in semantic and visual analysis. Specifically, we integrate recent methods to compute semantic fields (Stone & Dennis, 2007) on the basis of latent semantic analysis (Landauer & Dumais, 1997) with a metric of visual saliency (Itti & Koch, 2001). In a validation experiment, we collected fine-grained interaction and eye-gaze data as participants used a modified version of the Firefox browser and produced semantic and saliency maps for all screens that were displayed for at least 500 ms. Our analyses of search paths and the semantic and visual properties of fixated page locations suggest that semantic factors are more predictive of search success than visual saliency.


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Structured Meme Theory: How is Informational Inheritance Maintained?

Makoto Toyota   (mako1950@mac.com)
T-Method

Muneo Kitajima   (kitajima@ni.aist.go.jp)
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology

Hideaki Shimada   (hshimada@shinshu-u.ac.jp)
Shinshu University

There has been a recent consensus that the range of informational inheritance by genes is limited to physical functions and infantile behavior. Human beings need to acquire basic behavioral and communicational skills through experience. We propose the Structured Meme Theory that explains acquisition and development of these skills. It consists of action-level, behavior-level and culture-level memes. These are interconnected non-linearly, reflecting the level of complexity of brain functions that map environmental information onto internal representations. The mechanism with which the three levels of memes and genes inherit information is analogous to an information system. Genes serve as firmware that mimics behavior-level activities; the action-level meme, as the operating system that defines general patterns of spatial-temporal behavioral functions; the behavior-level meme, as middleware that extends the general patterns to concrete patterns; and the culture-level meme, as an application tool that extends the concrete patterns to ones that work in the community.


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Aptness is a Bear: Evaluating the Relationship Between Metaphor Quality and Metaphor Comprehension

Brian F. Bowdle   (bowdleb@gvsu.edu)
Grand Valley State University

According to Bowdle and Gentner s (2005) career of metaphor theory, there is a processing shift from comparison to categorization as metaphors become conventionalized. However, a number of researchers have recently argued that it is not conventionality but rather aptness that determines how metaphoric mappings are established, such that highly apt metaphors are processed as categorizations, but less apt metaphors are processed as comparisons (e.g., Chiappe, Kennedy & Smykowski, 2003; Glucksberg & Haught, 2006; Jones & Estes, 2005, 2006). In this study, I independently manipulated the aptness and conventionality of metaphoric statements. I found that aptness had an impact on the perceived strength of figurative expressions, but did not influence the mode of mapping used during comprehension. In contrast, conventionality affected both perceived strength and mode of mapping. The results of this study offer further support for the career of metaphor.


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Multimodal Characterization of Breast Cancer Screening Anomalies

Monica Gemo   (Monica.Gemo@uclouvain.be)
Universite Catholique De Louvain

Olga Vybornova   (vybornova@tele.ucl.ac.be)
Universite Catholique De Louvain

Benoit Macq   (Benoit.Macq@uclouvain.be)
Universite Catholique De Louvain

Within current screening programs, the description of breast images and cancer anomalies involves the use of multiple means to capture information, such as paper forms and voice recorders. Multimodal annotations could greatly aid users by providing more effective, intuitive data manipulation and allowing the radiologists attention focus on image interpretation. However, the combination of input/output modalities is critical, as the overall interaction design must be cognitively and moreover perceptually adequate to the users tasks. Similarly to current input paradigm, we propose the mix of gestural pen-based sketching for quick notes and natural speech understanding for more extensive annotations. Both input streams are then mapped to controlled vocabulary for structured reporting purposes. Feedback is given via graphical and/or auditory hints, the first providing immediate expressiveness, whereas the second conveying information without polluting images. Experimental evaluation also allowed testing for distorted anomaly perception with auditory instead of only conventional visual output.


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Poster Session III -- Memory

(Saturday, July 26, 2008, 5:00-7:00 PM, Exhibit Hall)


Working Memory Components in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task

Pavel Sergey Grebenkov   (pgrebenk@connect.carleton.ca)
Carleton University

Jobina Li   (jliq@carleton.ca)
Carleton University

Gordon Griffiths   (gordongriffths@rogers.com)
Carleton University

Arman Tajarobi   (carleton@tajarobi.com)
Carleton University

Abeer Mourad   (amourad@connect.carleton.ca)
Carleton University

Although previous research has indicated that the Phonological Loop (PL) is heavily solicited in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), there has been little research on the role of the Visuospatial Sketchpad (VSSP). Thirty adults completed a computerized WCST in combination with working memory loads, which included a verbal condition (repeated verbalizations), a visuospatial condition (spatial tapping) and a control condition (no load). We measured participants? accuracy, response time, and perseverations. Overall, participants displayed poorer performance in the dual- than in the single-task conditions. There were no differences between the verbal and visuospatial load conditions. However, post-hoc analyses by order of conditions indicated that when the verbal load was administered first, perserveration errors were significantly higher than in the control and visual-spatial conditions. These results suggest that although both the PL and the VSSP may play a role in the WCST, different processing mechanisms may be responsible for their effects.


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Learning from Scrolling Interfaces: Interactions with Working Memory Capacity

Christopher A. Sanchez   (c.sanchez@asu.edu)
Arizona State University Polytechnic

Jennifer Wiley   (jwiley@uic.edu)
University of Illinois at Chicago

A common feature of most websites, small devices and other productivity suites is the incorporation of a scroll bar to provide the user the ability to access large amounts of information on a single screen. While much research has been done in an attempt to find a newer, better way to navigate, little research has been done that has evaluated the impact of this design characteristic on learning. This set of studies investigated whether scrolling interfaces influence comprehension of an illustrated scientific text. Results indicate that not only do nearly half of users prefer such interfaces, but scrolling does also positively impact learning. However, the benefit of scrolling also interacts with learner characteristics, specifically working memory capacity. Those low in WMC performed significantly better with scrolling interfaces (versus non-scrolling) whereas high WMC individuals were unaffected. These results further support recent notions which suggest a focus on learner abilities when designing learning environments.


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Learning Correct Responses and Errors in the Hebb Repetition Paradigm

Daniel Lafond   (daniel.lafond.1@ulaval.ca)
Université Laval

Mathieu Couture   (mathieu.couture.3@ulaval.ca)
Université Laval

Sébastien Tremblay   (sebastien.tremblay@psy.ulaval.ca)
Université Laval

In a serial recall task, the Hebb repetition effect occurs when recall performance improves for a sequence repeated throughout the experimental session compared to nonrepeated sequences. This phenomenon has been replicated many times. Nevertheless, such cumulative learning seldom leads to perfect recall of the whole sequence and errors persist. Here we report evidence that there is another side to the Hebb repetition effect that involves learning the errors produced in a repeated sequence. A learning measure based on past recalls (correct or incorrect) shows that the probability of a given response increases with the number of prior occurrences of that response. The authors report a simulation based on the null hypothesis demonstrating that these results are not due to any flaw in the particular measure or analysis. The pattern of results reveals another manifestation of the Hebb repetition effect and speaks to the nature of implicit learning.


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Induction and Recollection in Explicit and Implicit Category Learning

Michael Romano   (mromano@ucmerced.edu)
University of California, Merced

Does recollection memory predict inductive reasoning? Explicit and implicit classification learning were investigated. Explicit classification participants learned two animal categories by discriminating exemplars between category labels, and during feedback they learned the two species' behaviors. Implicit classification participants learned the same categories by discriminating exemplars? behaviors, and during feedback they learned the category labels. After learning, participants completed an induction task and a memory task. Induction task results showed explicit learners were more likely than implicit learners to base judgments on physical features than behavioral features. Memory task results, which measured the proportion of physical and behavioral features recalled, showed no significant difference between groups. Despite no group difference in memory, recollection of both feature types was a stronger predictor of inductive reasoning for implicit learners than explicit learners. This suggests a crucial role for representation in reasoning, as both groups had equal knowledge of physical and behavioral features.


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Crossover Effect as Observed in Individuals with Learning Disabilities

Beth M. Hartzler   (hbeth@bgsu.edu)
Bowling Green State University

Richard B. Anderson   (randers@bgsu.edu)
Bowling Green State University

Frederick Parente   (fparente@towson.edu)
Towson University

Bryan Devan   (bdevan@towson.edu)
Towson University

Herbert Petri   (hpetri@towson.edu)
Towson University

The present work assessed whether Tulving's crossover effect in recall would replicate with developmentally delayed (DD) participants. In the typical paradigm, participants study first a short, then a longer list of words. For control participants (non-overlap), no words are shared between lists. For participants in the experimental group (overlap), every word in the short list is included in the long list. During initial attempts, recall is typically greater for the overlap group but after repeated recall attempts, the non-overlap group performs better. The poorer ultimate performance of the overlap group may indicate competing mental organizations for the two lists. In the present study, two experiments examined the crossover effect using DD participants. Neither study yielded a crossover effect, though by one measure, recall was better in the overlap than in the non-overlap group. Thus, DD participants appeared unable to construct competing organizations for the short and long lists.


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Linking Target Estimation and Cued Recall Through Common Working and Long Term Memory Processes

Evelina Dineva   (evelina-dineva@uiowa.edu)
University of Iowa &  Iowa Center for Developmental and Learning Sciences

John P. Spencer   (john-spencer@uiowa.edu)
University of Iowa &  Iowa Center for Developmental and Learning Sciences

A central question in cognitive science is how different memory systems relate. Here, we present a dynamic neural field model that offers a unified account of how working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) are integrated: LTM traces emerge from active WM states. Memory representations in this framework are neural activation profiles over continuous feature dimensions, anchored to a spatial reference frame. Simulations predict systematic interactions among metrically close targets. Thus, we examined whether estimation responses--holding an item in WM--and recall biases--probed via cued recall--are fundamentally linked. People estimated targets close in space and color across blocks of estimation and cued recall trials. Across conditions, targets were arranged so the same color-space combination should be pulled in opposite directions in both tasks. Results showed the predicted effects over blocks, confirming the metric nature of memory and suggesting systematic distortions that arise from an integrated memory system.


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Crossmodal Binding in Working Memory

Anne T. Gilman   (Anne.Gilman@unh.edu)
University of New Hampshire

Colin Ware   (cware@ccom.unh.edu)
University of New Hampshire

Two experiments associating non-speech sounds with visual objects shed light on crossmodal binding capacity. Experiment 1 confirmed that articulatory suppression impaired sound associations more than color associations and suggested that audio-visual object binding capacity may be lower than capacity for solely visual objects. Experiment 2 showed improved crossmodal binding capacity for meaningful, feature-rich sounds and images compared to pure tones and abstract spheres.


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Poster Session III -- Perspectives on Learning

(Saturday, July 26, 2008, 5:00-7:00 PM, Exhibit Hall)


The Role of Prior Knowledge and System Structure on Self-Regulated Learning With Hypermedia

Roger Azevedo   (razevedo@memphis.edu)
University of Memphis

Amy M. Witherspoon   (awthrspn@mail.psyc.memphis.edu)
University of Memphis

Gwyneth Lewis   (glewis@mail.psyc.memphis.edu)
University of Memphis

Emily Siler   (easiler@memphis.edu)
University of Memphis

This study examined the role of prior knowledge and hypermedia system structure on undergraduates self-regulated learning about the circulatory system. Sixty low prior knowledge (LPK; n = 30) and high prior knowledge (HPK; n = 30) learners were randomly assigned to either a structured learning environment (SLE) or an unstructured learning environment (ULE) to learn about the topic in individual sessions. During the experimental sessions, each learner completed a pretest, learned about the circulatory system for 40-minutes while we collected think-aloud data, and completed a posttest. Results indicate that in the ULE, HPK students learned significantly more than the LPK students on all learning measures. In the SLE, LPK students learned significantly more than HPK students. HPK students used a significantly higher proportion of monitoring and planning processes, whereas LPK students used a significantly higher proportion of learning strategies in both environments. Overall, students assigned to the ULE used a significantly higher proportion of self-regulatory processes than those in the SLE.


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The Role of Integration Scaffolding in Learners' Self-Regulated Learning With Multiple External Representations

Amy Witherspoon   (awthrspn@mail.psyc.memphis.edu)
The University of Memphis

Roger Azevedo   (razevedo@memphis.edu)
The University of Memphis

This mixed-method study examined the effectiveness of integration scaffolding in facilitating students self-regulated learning (SRL) about two complex science topics from multiple external representations with multimedia. Forty-eight (N=48) undergraduates viewed two learning modules (circulatory and digestive systems) with text and diagrams. Integration scaffolding involved highlighting relevant segments of the diagram when participants scroll over particular phrases within the text. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: early integration scaffolding (EIS), in which learners had access to the integration scaffolds only in the first learning module; or no integration scaffolding (NIS), which did not include scaffolding for either learning module. Preliminary results indicate that participants in the early integration scaffolding condition acquired more declarative and conceptual knowledge of the systems for the learning module which was scaffolded than learners in the no integration scaffolding condition. Think-aloud protocols are currently being coded for SRL behavior during the learning session.


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Coordinating Principles and Examples Through Analogy and Explanation

Timothy J. Nokes   (nokes@pitt.edu)
University of Pittsburgh

Kurt Vanlehn   (vanlehn@pitt.edu)
University of Pittsburgh

Daniel M. Belenky   (dmbelenk@gmail.com)
University of Pittsburgh

Research on expertise suggests that a critical aspect of expert understanding is knowing the conceptual relations between domain principles and the problem features (Chi, Feltovich, Glaser, 1981). In the current work we investigate two sense-making pathways hypothesized to facilitate students? deep learning of these relations. The first path is through self-explaining how worked examples instantiate domain principles and the second path is through the analogical comparison of worked examples. Students in an introductory physics class were randomly assigned to one of three worked example conditions (self-explain, analogical comparison, or reading explanations) when learning about concepts in rotational kinematics and then took a set of conceptual and problem solving tests. Preliminary results show that the participants in the sense-making groups (self-explain and analogical comparison) showed more conceptual learning and robust transfer than participants who read explanations of the worked examples.


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Perceptual Learning in Mathematics Education

Ji Son   (jys@ucla.edu)
UCLA

Christine Massey   (massey@seas.upenn.edu)
Upenn

Zipora Roth   (zroth@seas.upenn.edu)
Upenn

Warren Longmire   (warrenlongmire@gmail.com)
Upenn

Timothy Burke   (mizerai@ucla.edu)
UCLA

Joel Zucker   (joel@zuck.com)
UCLA

Philip J. Kellman   (kellman@cognet.ucla.edu)
UCLA

Perceptual learning (PL) refers to experience-induced changes in the ability to extract information. Although PL has been recognized as a crucial component of expertise, it has largely been neglected in K-12 instruction. Experts perceive problem-relevant structure that seem invisible to novices. Even when particular distinctions are explicitly pointed out, novices often ignore them. Our study investigated whether: (1) PL can be systematically accelerated in high-level domains such as mathematics, and (2) PL improves performance on traditional assessments. Sixth graders were trained with specialized software designed to foster PL rather than declarative or procedural knowledge. Students independently engaged in many brief trials in which, they had to recognize and respond to relational structure. This study showed PL-trained 6th graders robustly outperformed control 7th and 8th graders in assessments of measurement concepts, procedures, and problem solving. The findings indicate that PL interventions can produce structural intuitions and fluency that complement explicit instruction.


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Students' Beliefs about Learning English as a Foreign Language

Raquel G. Garcia Jurado   (raquelunam@yahoo.com.mx)
National Autonomous University of Mexico

Recent research to improve learners' achievement has focused on the importance of knowing the type of beliefs they have about different aspects of learning. At the National Autonomous University of Mexico, in the Faculty of Higher Education Acatlan, a research was carried out with the aim of exploring the beliefs of students starting courses of English as a foreign language. In order to explore such beliefs, a belief inventory that examined the type of learning activities students preferred, their ideal type of error correction, the way they preferred to be evaluated, their ability for self-learning, and their disposition for autonomy was designed. The inventory was administered to a random sample of 285 students from a total population of 650 students registered in the basic level of English at the Language Teaching Center of the Faculty. A descriptive analysis of the inventory items that revealed students preferences was carried out.


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Learning Disabled Students, Metacognition, and Informative Writing

Delayne Connor   (delayne.connor@bridgew.edu)
Bridgewater State College

This study concerns 8th grade students with learning disabilities and the mechanism--metacognition--they use to organize and control expository discourse production in response to writing prompts.  An ethnographic data analysis procedure was used to identify the metacognitive strategies reported by and used as subjects composed aloud in response to writing prompts. Interobserver reliability was established (.76 and .93) for identification of the strategies, and taxonomies of strategies were developed. An abstractive level of discourse was assigned to each subject's paper.  Results of the study indicated that all subjects reported using the same four or five broad domains of metacognitive strategies when they usually write and when they actually composed aloud. Subjects planned, evaluated, recognized difficulty, responded to difficulty, and repaired difficulty as they composed discourse. Although small sample size, identification criteria, and other limitations prevent generalizations, certain strategies seemed to advance the writing process. Other research suggests that these strategies can be taught.


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The Effect of Concrete and Abstract Manipulatives on Efficient and Innovative Learning

Daniel Belenky   (dmb83@pitt.edu)
Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh

Timothy J. Nokes   (nokes@pitt.edu)
Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh

How does the type of learning material impact what is learned? The current research investigates the nature of the benefits observed in students? learning of math concepts when using manipulatives (Uttal, Scudder & DeLoache, 1997). We examine how the type of manipulative (abstract or concrete) and problem solving prompt (metacognitive or problem-focused) affects the efficient versus innovative learning of probability concepts. Schwartz, Bransford, & Sears (2005) have hypothesized that adaptive expertise consists of a balance between efficient learning, which results in quick, accurate performance on a target task but does not transfer easily to new situations, and innovative learning, which transfers more easily but does not show the same gains in skill acquisition in the original context. Preliminary results suggest that concrete manipulatives with metacognitive prompts promote better learning as measured by problem solving and transfer.


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Designing Structured Invention Tasks to Prepare for Future Learning

Ido Roll   (idoroll@cmu.edu)
Carnegie Mellon University

Vincent Aleven   (aleven@cs.cmu.edu)
Aleven@Cs.Cmu.Edu

Kenneth R. Koedinger   (koedinger@cmu.edu)
Koedinger@Cmu.Edu

Some structured invention tasks, prior to instruction, can help students encode deep features of the domain and thereby accelerate future learning. However, the characteristics of these tasks are not yet clear. In two studies we have attempted to identify different characteristics of productive invention tasks within the domain of basic data analysis. In study 1, twenty remedial 9th grade students invented methods for calculating central tendency. In study 2, four students received interleaved structured invention tasks and direct instruction over a semester long math course on topics of distribution and variance. The invention tasks asked students to invent methods for comparing different sets of data. Students were then asked to iteratively debug their inventions by comparing their methods' predictions to their hypotheses (based on their intuition) and improve them. Our experience suggests that contrasting cases are a key feature in the invention task and are useful also for direct instruction.


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Using Self-Explanation to Improve Algebra Learning

Julie L. Booth   (juliebooth@cmu.edu)
Carnegie Mellon University

Kenneth R. Koedinger   (koedinger@cmu.edu)
Carnegie Mellon University

Robert S. Siegler   (rs7k@andrew.cmu.edu)
Carnegie Mellon University

Students often hold persistent misconceptions about key algebraic features (e.g., the equals sign, negatives, like terms) which hinders their performance and learning of procedures for solving algebraic equations. This study evaluates the effectiveness of having students self-explain correct and incorrect worked examples for improving learning of both concepts and procedures. Preliminary results suggest that completing either type of self explanation exercise amid practice solving equations leads to reduction in the number of significant errors made in problem-solving. Experience self-explaining incorrect examples also consistently increased the number of students with a good concept of each of the key features; self-explaining correct examples did not yield the same benefit. Individual differences in the effectiveness of each type of exercise are also examined; initial results suggest that students with low or medium levels of conceptual understanding benefit more from self-explaining incorrect examples.


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Poster Session III -- Object and Scene Perception

(Saturday, July 26, 2008, 5:00-7:00 PM, Exhibit Hall)


The Seduction of Symmetry: Bias in the Manual Rotation of a Virtual Object

Andrew T. Stull   (stull@psych.ucsb.edu)
University of California, Santa Barbara

Mary Hegarty   (hegarty@psych.ucsb.edu)
University of California, Santa Barbara

Richard E. Mayer   (mayer@psych.ucsb.edu)
University of California, Santa Barbara

In two experiments, college students used a hand-held controller to manipulate a virtual, 3-D bone in a manual rotation task to match its orientation with various target orientations. In two conditions, the bone included (OR group) or did not include (no-OR group) orientation references visible lines marking the object's axes. Target matching accuracy (from 0° to 180°) was significantly better for the OR group. Individual trial accuracy was bi-modally distributed either near the target orientation (0°) or near the rotational symmetry orientation (180°). Symmetry errors were significantly less common for the OR group. Orientation references served to disambiguate the object's symmetry. Further, when trial orientations began near the symmetry orientation, then symmetry errors were significantly more common. These results demonstrate: 1) people are seduced by symmetry when manipulating virtual objects and 2) this effect is more prevalent when a symmetrical orientation is closer than a distant target orientation.


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Effects of Action Orientation on Coping with Negativity in Prisoners Dilemma Game Playing

Gergana Kusmova   (go_kuzmova@yahoo.com)
New Bulgarian University

Evgenia Hristova   (ehristova@cogs.nbu.bg)
New Bulgarian University

Maurice Grinberg   (mgrinberg@nbu.bg)
New Bulgarian University

In the first part of the experiment the participants played a Cyberball game with three other fake players (Williams, Chueng, & Choi, 2000). In the first experimental condition the subjects regularly received the ball and in the second condition the participants were ostracized by not being passed the ball. The mood was measured right before and after the game. The action orientation scores were taken in the beginning of the study. In the second part of the study the participants had to play Prisoner`s dilemma game against a computer but were informed that they will play with one of the players with whom they played the ball game. Our interest was to see whether the subjects in the ostracized condition will try to defect in return or will choose a cooperative strategy as a way to retrieve a feeling of inclusion. The results showed that the high negative feeling was important for the action oriented people. The more they felt bad after the manipulation, the more cooperative they were in the PDG.


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Processing of First- Vs. Third-Person Narratives

Tristan C. Thomte   (tthomte@stanford.edu)
Stanford University

Herbert H. Clark   (herb@psych.stanford.edu)
Stanford University

In two studies we analyzed how grammatical person (e.g., first or third) information influences the processing of narratives. In Study 1 participants responded differently to photographs that accompanied a story based on whether that story was told in the first or third person. Photographs that included the protagonist resulted in slower reaction times when paired with first person stories, but not when paired with the third person versions. In Study 2, participants given first person narratives were faster to respond to names of items that the protagonist could ostensibly see, and slower to respond to items that he could not. The same narratives told in the third person yielded no such reaction time differences. We argue that the perspective from which we imagine scenes depends in part on the grammatical person used in the telling of a narrative.


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Effects of Handedness and Orientation on Tool Naming and Use

Evangelia G. Chrysikou   (evangelg@psych.upenn.edu)
University of Pennsylvania

Shannon Fouse   (sfouse@sas.upenn.edu)
University of Pennsylvania

Sharon L. Thompson-Schill   (sschill@psych.upenn.edu)
University of Pennsylvania

Previous research has shown that factors such as the degree of rotation of an object from its canonical position or the participant's viewpoint influence object recognition. These studies have been conducted largely with right-handed participants. In the present work we aimed to examine whether the orientation of an object (right/left) interacts with participants' sensorimotor experience as indicated by the type (right/left) and degree (strong/weak) of their handedness. Participants were presented with pictures of graspable everyday items oriented either for a right- or left-handed person, as well as with pictures of non-graspable objects, and they were asked to generate either the name or the function of the object. The results showed significant main effects of object orientation, but marginal interactions with participants hand preference. These findings are discussed in the context of left-handed subjects? possible adjustments in everyday action due to the right-bias in canonical object orientation.


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The Recruitment of Language in the Perception of Objects

Kevin J. Holmes   (kevin.holmes@emory.edu)
Emory University

Laura L. Namy   (lnamy@emory.edu)
Emory University

Phillip Wolff   (pwolff@emory.edu)
Emory University

Recent work (e.g., Gilbert, Regier, Kay, & Ivry, in press) has reported a right visual field (RVF) advantage for discrimination of between-category over within-category object stimuli, suggesting that basic perceptual processing might recruit language-specific neural circuits in the left hemisphere (LH). We provided a finer test of this result by addressing two alternative explanations for the findings. In particular, the earlier work left open the possibilities that differences in perceptual similarity or in the processing of object categories, rather than language, drove the RVF advantage. In three experiments, we (1) replicated Gilbert et al.'s original findings, (2) showed that the effect cannot be explained in terms of similarity, and (3) created a RVF bias for processing novel objects with novel labels that was not evident when the objects went unlabeled. The findings clarify the basis of the RVF advantage and highlight processing differences between linguistic and non-linguistic categories.


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Manipulating Sudoku Strategies

Michael Schoelles   (schoem@rpi.edu)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Hansjorg Neth   (nethh@rpi.edu)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Alison Dennis   (dennia2@rpi.edu)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Wayne D. Gray   (grayw@rpi.edu)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Across three conditions, we vary the influence perceptual-motor costs of information access in the game of Sudoku. In the control condition, participants can always see the entire game. In the open-3-condition a third of the board is visible. In the open-1-condition only a ninth of the board is visible. In these latter two conditions, viewing the hidden parts of the board requires the participant to move the mouse to and click on the hidden segments. All participants play three games in the control condition, followed by three games in one treatment condition, and then two games in the control condition. All behavioral, event, and object data are collected, time-stamped, and saved to a logfile. These data will be analyzed to determine whether and how the cost of information access affects game performance and strategy shifts.


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Object-Specific Preview Benefit and Multiple Object Tracking: Priming Effects Enhanced During Active Tracking for Both English Letters and Unfamiliar Symbols

Harry Haroutioun Haladjian   (haladjian@ruccs.rutgers.edu)
Rutgers University

Zenon W. Pylyshyn   (zenon@ruccs.rutgers.edu)
Rutgers University

Previous studies have provided support for object-based visual processing through an object-specific preview benefit (OSPB), which shows that a priming effect for object identity travels with an object over space and time (Kahneman, Treisman, & Gibbs, 1992). In a recent study, we link this object-based representation to indexing processes in early vision during Multiple Object Tracking (MOT). A typical MOT task requires observers to track several moving targets among identical distractors (Pylyshyn, 1988). By developing a task that combined the OSPB and MOT experimental frameworks, we found an enhanced preview benefit for English letters when active tracking was required (compared to non-tracking trials). In addition, trials using unfamiliar symbols from an ancient language also produced the same pattern of preview benefits during active tracking trials. We discuss the implications of these findings as they pertain to the nature of object representations and their interaction with early visual processes.


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Motivating Use of an Object-Centered Frame of Reference

Laurie E. Robinette   (ler6578@louisiana.edu)
University of Louisiana At Lafayette

Michele I. Feist   (feist@louisiana.edu)
University of Louisiana At Lafayette

Michael Kalish   (kalish@louisiana.edu)
University of Louisiana At Lafayette

While English speakers generally rely on a viewer-centered frame of reference when interpreting table-top space, they will also adopt an object-centered frame in certain situations ? prompting the question: What factors determine which frame? The current research investigates two possible contributors to use of an object-centered frame: the intrinsic frontedness of a reference object involved in the scene, which should highlight the properties necessary for the object to be capable of having its own distinguishable perspective; and the syntactic structure used to describe the scene, with the particular construction the [located object] is to the [reference object's] left/right increasing the salience of the reference object's inherent geometrical properties. The influence of each of these factors was tested using a sentence acceptability rating paradigm. Results suggest important roles for both object frontedness and sentence structure in the acceptability of sentences relying on the object-centered frame of reference.


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Theory of Mind and Automatic Processing

Adam Scott Cohen   (ascohen@psych.ucsb.edu)
University of California, Santa Barbara

Tamsin C. German   (german@psych.ucsb.edu)
University of California, Santa Barbara

Researchers consider theory of mind, or mentalizing, a high-level cognitive system. Yet it also displays features typical of low-level perceptual systems. For instance, people often infer mental states without explicit instructions to do so, suggesting automatic sub-processes within the mentalizing system. Under covert conditions for belief (subjects were not told to attend to belief information) subjects were either unexpectedly probed about where someone falsely believed an object was located or where the object really was. Despite explicit instructions to track the actual location of the object, response times to belief probes were significantly faster than response times to reality, but only when performance demands were low. In Experiment 2, response times to belief under overt conditions equaled response times to belief (under covert conditions) from Experiment 1. These results suggest that mentalizing includes automatic sub-processes and that performance demands influence availability of information derived from automatic components of the system.


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Efficient Expression of 2d Shapes Using Points in Consideration of Human Visual Characteristics

Hiroyo Ishikawa   (hiroyo@ozawa.ics.keio.ac.jp)
Keio University

Hideo Saito   (saito@ozawa.ics.keio.ac.jp)
Keio University

A new device has been developed for 3D spatial display. This device uses laser beams to produce plasma light in mid-air. In this research, a method of expressing 2D shapes efficiently using light points in consideration of human visual characteristics is proposed. By this method light points are located on the vertices of corners. In the case of curves, the density of points is changed in relation to its curvature. Psychological experiments were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of images which are expressed by this method. As a result, we can see that our method expresses 2D shapes more efficiently than the way to locate points at equal intervals, even if the object without clear effectiveness by our method exists.


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Poster Session III -- Other Agents, Social Cognition, and Emotion

(Saturday, July 26, 2008, 5:00-7:00 PM, Exhibit Hall)


Sarcastic Synchronization: Simultaneous Acoustic and Pragmatic Alignment in Pseudo-Interaction

Jennifer Roche   (jroche@memphis.edu)
The University of Memphis

Rick Dale   (radale@memphis.edu)
The University of Memphis

Gina Caucci   (gcaucci@memphis.edu)
The University of Memphis

Much recent research suggests that dialogue is processed differently than monologue because of the relative ease with which humans engage in social discourse. Garrod & Pickering (2004) proposed that dialogue is processed through interactive alignment, which involves the emergence of shared or aligned representations between interlocutors. Similarly, the process of emotional contagion involves shared emotional representations, which may also promote the convergence of emotional cues that facilitate dialogue (Hatfield, Cacioppo, & Rapson, 1993). Alignment theories suggest that speakers form predictions about future utterances to more efficiently communicate and to avoid cognitive overload. Alignment shows a rich interaction of linguistic and perceptual cues that promote the ease of dialogue. We describe a line of research evaluating both emotion-related expression (sarcastic prosody and expression) and pragmatic choice (use of sarcasm). By analysis of speech acoustics during a pseudo-dialogue scenario involving either a neutral, understated or exaggerated sarcasm, we explore how participants align with the (pre-recorded) interaction partner. We demonstrate the levels of coordination exhibited by participants in this task, and discuss findings in light of alignment theories of language and discourse processing.


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Determinants of 'Change Deafness' Rates in an Ecologically Valid Social Scenario

Thomas A. Farmer   (taf22@cornell.edu)
Cornell University

Melanie Hamel   (melanie@rice.edu)
Rice University

Kat Kgres   (kra9@cornell.edu)
Cornell University

Sheena Rogers   (rogerssj@cisat.jmu.edu)
James Madison University

Although the ?change blindness? phenomenon has been shown to occur in naturalistic social situations, considerably less attention has been paid to change detection rates in the auditory modality. Given the differential temporal properties of the perceptual signal across modalities--a visual scene is often constantly present for re-referencing during processing, whereas the auditory signal is fleeting and not stable--the study of auditory change detection can help illuminate the underlying mechanisms of change detection. In study one, we show that during a naturalistic phone conversation, participants are unlikely to notice a switch in speaker voice, and that these ?change deafness? rates are equal to, or higher, than those observed in commensurate studies in the visual modality. In the second study, through a series of manipulations, we demonstrate that verbal working memory does not account for the change deafness phenomenon, but that attentional and perceptual variables appear to affect detection rates.


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Benefits of Using Empirical Data in the HCI Design Process

Sarah Kriz   (kriz@itd.nrl.navy.mil)
Naval Research Laboratory

J. Gregory Trafton   (trafton@itd.nrl.navy.mil)
Naval Research Laboratory

When constructing computer systems that interact with humans, designers generally begin their process by conducting a task analysis to identify key informational and interactional issues. While there are a number of ways in which a task analysis can be conducted, empirical data collection is often avoided. We believe that experimental situations yield important insights into the way in which humans interact with a system, and that designers can benefit from collecting experimental data as a beginning step in the design process. Our own experience building a robot that can comprehend requests for objects suggests that collecting human-to-human data provides information above and beyond what can be gained from a traditional task analysis. Specifically, we have been able to understand how social pressures shape language and behavior by employing experimental designs that highlighted social aspects of the task. This poster illustrates our methodological process and discusses the benefits of using empirical data as a basis for designing HCI systems.


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Cognitive Knowledge, Skills, Abilities and Others (Ksaos) Extracted from Corporate MBO Data

Kohei Noda   (noda@eir-p.com)
Ei Research Inc.

Micihtsugu Yamauchi   (michi@valdes.titech.ac.jp)
Tokyo Institute of Technology

Daisaku Kitamura   (d.saku.k@fuij.waseda.jp)
Waseda University

We developed the methodology to extract personal and organizational goals and skills from corporate MBO (Management By Objectives) data. MBO is the management methodology to enhance work performance by linking personal goals with corporate goal. An employee sets personal goals at the beginning of a fiscal year and gets the evaluation of the achievement of the goals at the end of the year. The evaluation often links to the performance appraisal. As a pilot study, we analyzed a corporate MBO data (employee s goal and result text) using a MBO software with natural language processing and data mining technology. One of the authors has developed Human Resource Appraisal (HRA) ontology. It consists of human resource modeling concepts such as KSAOs. We categorized the frequently used words to HRA ontology. We also developed goal setting mind mapping ontology software.


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Coordination and Self-Similarity of Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviors During Face-To-Face Dyadic Conversation

Kathleen T. Ashenfelter   (kathleen.t.ashenffelter@census.gov)
U.S. Census Bureau

Steven Boker   (smb3u@virginia.edu)
University of Virginia

Jennifer Waddell   (jennifer.waddell@villanova.edu)
Villanova University

This research investigated the coordination of head movements and speech between two people during face-to-face conversation. Two novel quantitative approaches to behavioral time series analysis (recurrence quantification analysis and wavelet transform modulus maxima) were applied to both the verbal and nonverbal data extracted during a dyadic conversation. Linear mixed-effects models were then used to examine the influence of a participant's gender and score on a personality measure of dominance on these behaviors.  The results of these analyses provide evidence that people engaged in conversation are highly coordinated and show synchronization in both their speech and nonverbal behaviors. Additionally, there is evidence that their verbal and nonverbal behaviors exhibit self-similarity across many different scales of time measurement. Both gender and dominance also appear to play a role in the degree to which a person is synchronized with their conversational partner. The implications of these results are discussed.


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Examining the Level of Aggression in Italian Professional Soccer

Franco Zengaro   (fzengaro@mtsu.edu)
Middle Tennessee State University

Sally Zengaro   (zenga002@bama.ua.edu)
University of Alabama

Asghar Iran-Nejad   (airannej@bamaed.ua.edu)
University of Alabama

This study investigated the level of aggression in Italian professional soccer. Penalties, yellow cards, and red card ejections over four seasons and 2892 games in Italian first division soccer from 2003-2007 were examined. The resulting data were analyzed through Pearson correlation, regression, and repeated measures MANOVA. The results indicated higher ranked teams are more likely to receive fewer yellow and red cards over a season, r=.483, p=.01. Team classification was a significant predictor of yellow cards, t(76)=4.8, p=.000, and red cards received, t(76)=.203, p=.000. Aggression increased significantly over the four years, F(2.562)= 194.72, p=.000. The results are interpreted using biofunctional theory, which explains that players adopting a combination of unconstructive and habitual styles of functioning may resort to more aggression while players who combine a constructive and creative style of functioning may maximize their performance without committing penalties.


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Associative Symmetry Generalizes to Asymmetric Pairs

Christopher R. Madan   (cmadan@ualberta.ca)
University of Alberta

Mackenzie G. Glaholt   (mackenzie@psych.utoronto.ca)
University of Toronto At Mississauga

Jeremy B. Caplan   (jcaplan@ualberta.ca)
University of Alberta

In verbal paired-associates learning, average accuracy for cued recall of a pair, A-B, in the forward and backward directions (A and B, respectively) are equal. Gestalt psychologists suggested that pairs are learned in a single encoding step, rather than a separate encoding step for each of the forward and backward associations (Asch and Ebenholtz, 1962). However, mean symmetry does not directly test these two models. Instead, a near-perfect correlation between forward and backward performance directly supports holistic learning and is mathematically independent of mean performance. Indeed, an auto-associative neural network required a high correlation between forward and backward encoding strengths to fit the high empirical forward-backward correlation in symmetric pairs (Rizzuto and Kahana, 2001). We tested whether asymmetric pairs are learned non-holistically. Challenging this hypothesis, when asymmetries were induced (pairing low- with high-frequency words), the correlation remained high, generalizing holistic learning to the more ecologically relevant class of heterogeneous associations.


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What Goes on in a Meeting? An Empirical Study

Nik Nailah Binti Abdullah   (bintiabd@nii.ac.jp)
National Institute of Informatics, Tokyo, Japan

Elia Tomadaki   (E.Tomadaki@open.ac.uk)
Knowledge Media Institute, Walton Hall, The Open University

Peter Scott   (Peter.Scott@open.ac.uk)
Knowledge Media Institute, Walton Hall, The Open University

Shinichi Honiden   (honiden@nii.ac.jp)
National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-Ku, 101-8430 Tokyo,Japan

Our work concerns investigating and establishing a method of analysis for analyzing videoconferencing meetings. We introduce the method in progress. It is derived from two cognition theories: situated cognition and the hierarchy of learning and communication focused on these ideas: conceptualization, external/internal stimulus, and context marker. The method is used during several stages within an emergent coding. The combined method provides as a guideline on what to look for in meetings. The aim from using the method is to explain ?what goes on in a meeting?. We illustrate a step-by-step description of how the method was applied in a naturalistic event concerning a group of people discussing animation recorded via the FlashMeeting videoconferencing system. We show the results. In parallel, a lexical analysis was conducted as validation to the results. Then we report on frequent acts, meeting phases, topics of discussion and emotions, which explicate what happens in the meeting.


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A Gestalt-Base Knowledge Representation for Controlling Cognitive Biases

Fumihito Ikeda   (fumike@high.hokudai.ac.jp)
Hokkaido University

I developed a Gestalt based knowledge representation method to enhance our skills in controlling our cognitive biases, because they often drive us into various human errors. Although Gestalt is a perceptive phenomenon and biases relate our cognitions, Gestalt can be observed in our cognitive level like categorization. Gestalt has some rules to be perceived as Gestalt, however the multi-ruled figures are difficult to be recognized as Gestalt. So I introduced Gestalt rules into definitions of relations between information, and by representing our knowledge in the information network with multi Gestalt relations it was expected that we were able to control our cognitive biases. As a result of an experiment on 20 participants who were divided into an experiment group and a control group, I could recognize a certain extent of the intended effect; however I need to confirm it statistically.


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Towards a Workload-Performance Prediction Tool

Daniel N. Cassenti   (dcassenti@arl.army.mil)
U.S. Army Research Laboratory

Troy Kelley   (tkelley@arl.army.mil)
U.S. Army Research Laboratory

Mental workload is the amount of mental effort required to perform a task or a set of tasks (e.g., Wickens, 2002). The literature illustrates two methods of measuring workload requesting subjective ratings (i.e., the self-estimated amount of mental effort expended) and using performance (i.e., accuracy decreases and response time increases with greater workload). As a follow-up to a previously run experiment, we ran two experiments to evaluate to what extent assumptions of subjective workload research apply to performance-based workload. We found that singular task parameters are just as influential on performance as task type and that task types previously thought to require more workload than other task types also show better performance. We also found evidence of undertaxing, even performance, linearly declining performance, and floor performance as more simultaneous tasks are required. The findings are the beginning of a set of algorithms intended to build a workload performance prediction tool.


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The Regulatory Self of the Extended Mind

Hsi-Wen Daniel Liu   (hwliu@pu.edu.tw)
Providence University

Clark (2007) raises the notion of `soft selves for the extended mind thesis. They are the ecological controllers that exploit internal orders by self-organization to support problem-solving tasks. Clark (2007) understands his notion of soft selves as reconciliation between Ismael s (2007) self-representation model and Dennettian non-reality of selves. The present paper argues that the extended mind can have a regulatory role of the self, a role that helps agents to modify several parameters with a view to pursuing better performance; yet, Clark (2007) does not touch this issue. As a supplement of Clark s notion of ecological controllers, my research accounts for the regulatory role of the self, by resorting to control-theoretic models for simulating self-regulation. Because of the regulatory role of the self, my research shows, the extended mind owns pretty much internal devices. This pushes the notion of ecological controllers further away from the Dennettian view of non-real selves.


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The Cognitive Science of Affect: Toward a Biological Embodiment Perspective

Asghar Iran-Nejad   (airannej@bamaed.ua.edu)
University of Alabama

Much of the research in today's explosive field of affective science focuses on the nature and origin of affect. Built around the interdisciplinary theme of unity of metaphysical software in the diversity physical hardware, the majority of cognitive scientists seek the origin of affect in cognitive evaluation. This presentation discusses some of the past and present landmark developments in the study of affect in cognitive science. The aspiration is to draw attention to a more inclusive understanding of the interdisciplinary research on the nature of biological-embodiment of affect.


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Hunting Harvey: Imaginary Companion Analogs in Adults

Deborah J. O. Hendersen   (djoh@stanford.edu)
Stanford University

I report on a survey looking at the imaginary lives of adults, and explore parallels between imagining in adults and imagining in children, specifically, children's use of imaginary companions. The survey encompasses adult's exposure various media, as well as their self-reports of daydreaming, talking to oneself, and talking to imagined others. While 99% of the adults denied having an imaginary companion per se, nearly 75% of them admitted to imagining talking to people who were not really there.


Back to Poster Session II Member Abstracts, Friday, July 25, 2008, 5:00-7:00 PM, Exhibit Hall

To Poster Session I Member Abstracts, Thursday, July 24, 2008, 5:30-7:00 PM, Exhibit Hall

 

Cognitive Science Journal Archive

The Cognitive Science Journal Archive currently contains electronic versions of 459 articles (of 98 issues and 24 years) of the Cognitive Science Journal and collects materials published in the Proceedings of the Annual Cognitive Science Conference. It is maintained by the CogWorks Laboratories of RPI's Cognitive Science Department.

CogWorks Labs, RPI