The goal of this project was to examine how training either mental or manual (virtual) rotation, affects performance gains on either a mental or a manual rotation task. In Experiment 1, we examined improvement on a manual rotation task following practice in mental rotation, manual rotation and a control condition. Practice in mental but not manual rotation lead to improved performance on manual rotation, compared to the control condition. In Experiment 2, we examined improvement on a mental rotation task as a function of the same 3 training conditions. In this experiment, both mental and manual rotation practice lead to more efficient posttest performance relative to the control condition. These results suggest common processes in mental and manual rotation, related to mental planning.