Can Help Seeking Behavior in Intelligent Tutoring Systems Be Used as Online Measure for Goal Orientation?

Abstract

Questionnaires to assess goal orientation are widely used. However, recent research indicates some shortcomings. Most significantly, questionnaire data are unable to capture developments and changes in students´ goal orientation during the learning process. Therefore, it seems appropriate to supplement questionnaire data with online measures that directly tackle students’ behavior. We analyzed data of 57 students who participated in a study with the Cognitive Tutor Geometry. Specifically, we analyzed relationships between questionnaire data on goal orientation, the use of hints and a glossary while working with the Tutor as potential online indicators for goal orientation, and learning outcomes. Results of our analyses show that our potential online indicators systematically differ from questionnaire data of goal orientation, yet have high predictive power for learning outcomes. Therefore, online indicators may be used to supplement questionnaire data of goal orientation and/or to further optimize adaptation in intelligent tutoring systems.


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